March 30, 2015

Tom Lowe



Title: PSALM 41

A psalm of David.




Psalm 41 (KJV)


1 Blessed[1] is he that considereth the poor: the Lord will deliver him in time of trouble.

2 The Lord will preserve him, and keep him alive; and he shall be blessed upon the earth: and thou wilt not deliver him unto the will of his enemies.

3 The Lord will strengthen him upon the bed of languishing: thou wilt make all his bed in his sickness.

4 I said, Lord, be merciful unto me: heal my soul; for I have sinned against thee.

5 Mine enemies speak evil of me, When shall he die, and his name perish?

6 And if he come to see me, he speaketh vanity: his heart gathereth iniquity to itself; when he goeth abroad, he telleth it.

7 All that hate me whisper together against me: against me do they devise my hurt.

8 An evil disease, say they, cleaveth fast unto him: and now that he lieth he shall rise up no more.

9 Yea, mine own familiar friend, in whom I trusted, which did eat of my bread, hath lifted up his heel against me.

10 But thou, O Lord, be merciful unto me, and raise me up, that I may requite them.

11 By this I know that thou favourest me, because mine enemy doth not triumph over me.

12 And as for me, thou upholdest me in mine integrity, and settest me before thy face for ever.

13 Blessed be the Lord God of Israel from everlasting, and to everlasting. Amen, and Amen.




Psalm’s 38, 39, 40, and 41 all came out of the very same situation.  Each of them was concerned with the circumstances which surrounded the rebellion of Absalom against his father David.


Many men have had a rebellious son but not many have sons who have hated them as much as Absalom hated David.  No rebellion takes place in a vacuum.  Behind Absalom’s rebellion was David’s sin with Bathsheba and the subsequent murder of her husband, which continually haunted David’s conscience. These hideous crimes had been forgiven, but the consequences of his actions was something which David had to contend with throughout the remaining years of his life.  God will forgive us, but we must still face the music and reap what we have so foolishly sown.


How could David impose the death sentence, required by the Law of Moses, upon Amnon for his wicked seduction of Absalom’s sister, when he himself had been guilty of the wicked seduction of Bathsheba?  How could David impose the death sentence, required by the Law of Moses, upon Absalom for the murder of Amnon, when he himself had been guilty of murdering Uriah?  So, from that one evil seed the whole Absalom rebellion flowered, flourished, and bore fruit.  Truly, what we sow we eventually reap.


Psalm 41 divides into three parts (The last verse is really a final epilogue to the entire first book of psalms.):

                            I.        DAVID’S FEARS (41:1-3)

                           II.        DAVID’S FOES (41:4-9)

                         III.        DAVID’S FAITH (41:10-12)





DAVID’S FEARS (41:1-3)

David had good cause to fear, for his circumstances were extremely serious.


1 Blessed is he that considereth the poor: the Lord will deliver him in time of trouble.


Some commentators substitute the word “helpless” for the word “poor.” David was referring to himself and he certainly was not poor.  The Hebrew word he used means “dangling” or “slacking” or “letting go.” Sometimes the word is rendered “the weak” or “the sick.” That was David’s condition.  So here, “the poor” probably means not so much poor financially as it does poor in health, weakened by sickness.


What happened to David—to the mighty man who could tackle a lion and a bear and in single-handed combat route the giant of Gath?  What happened to the warrior-king who never lost a battle and who raised the Hebrew people from a dozen squabbling tribes into an International Power? As the Hebrew of the passage suggests, he had been “letting things go.”


That’s his condition.  Matters of state slipped away from him; he no longer had a firm grip on the helm of the kingdom; he was a weakling.  That is what sin did for David and what sin will do for everyone.  But David was a contrite and a humble man.  He was “letting go” in another sense: “let go and let God.” The Lord would deliver him in time of trouble.


And David no doubt based his prayer on the stipulations given in the covenant (Leviticus 26:1-13; Deuteronomy 7:13-16; 28:1-14).  He knew that he had no right to claim mercy from the Lord if he himself had not shown mercy to others.  But David had fully obeyed the Lord’s rules and had shown mercy to King Saul, to Saul’s grandson Mephibosheth, and to the needy in the land he ruled.  (See Matthew 5:7[2] and Luke 6:37-38) God rewards kindness to the poor (Proverbs 19:17).  “Poor” refers to the helpless, the miserable people whose lot was difficult and who depended on the help of others.  To “consider” those pitiable people meant being attentive to their needs and assisting them; and teaching them the value of walking in accord with the mind of the Lord.  It also meant not judging and blaming them, as Job’s friends blamed him and the disciples blamed the blind man (John 9:1-4).  He believed, like other good men of his time that God, by his sickness, was seeking to correct him (Job 36:7-11).  We have every reason to believe that David sought to care for the poor and needy in his kingdom and therefore was praying with integrity. In verse one, he referred to himself in the third person, a true mark of his humility before the Lord.


“Blessed is he that considereth the poor” is a beatitude which corresponds to the “Blessing are the merciful” of the Sermon on the Mount.  Such a man is delivered, preserved, blessed, and strengthened by God.  The psalmist recognizes himself as an illustration of his case in point.



2 The Lord will preserve him, and keep him alive; and he shall be blessed upon the earth: and thou wilt not deliver him unto the will of his enemies.


Matters may have gotten beyond David’s control but God has things well in hand.  So David looked at his fears in that light and they were not as ominous as they first appeared.


Now think about David.  He was in the dark, everything around was black.  He had lost his strength, his power was gone, and the nation was slipping from his grasp.  It was one big black negative.  However he looked up to his God and said in effect, “Lord, You can change this negative into a positive and I believe you will. You can make the very worst thing that ever happened to me into the best thing.”


David listed in verses 2-3 the blessings God would send because he confessed his sins and asked God to be merciful to him (41:4).  Because David has earned a good reputation for his consideration of the sick and the sufferings, he is confident that God will not desert him to the malicious will of his foes.  He will instead give David all the grace he needs for his time in the sick room, then raise him up to health and strength once more.  God would protect him from his enemies and prolong his life in the land of Israel.  That in itself would bear witness to his enemies that David was a man favored by God



3 The Lord will strengthen him upon the bed of languishing: thou wilt make all his bed in his sickness.


The New Living Translation puts it this way: “The Lord nurses them when they are sick and restores them to health.” That explains the whole thing.  The Lord will nurse him back to health; “Thou wilt make all his bed in his sickness.” God sets beside him, so to speak, at his bedside, and, like a competent and kindly nurse, even changes the soiled sheets.  Often God is called the Great Physician; here he is the Visiting Nurse. 


The historical record does not say so, but as a result of David’s great sin and his equally great sorrow, he seems to have become dangerously ill.  This is the only way to account for David’s loss of control over the kingdom.  His sickness explains why Absalom could accuse David of neglecting his official duties and how he could mingle with the crowds of petitioners who were turned away without hearing from the palace, and promise he would immediately resolve their problems if he were made king.  David couldn’t attend to the cases of those who thronged his court.  David sickness explains also the strange failure in his natural courage as indicated in his hasty flight from Jerusalem when the rebellion came to a head.  That was not like David.  What he needed was a 6-month vacation on the coast; what he got was a forced march into barren hills.  David had been sick and the psalm describes the sickness.


David tosses and turns upon his bed.  In comes an attended and wipes the perspiration from David’s fevered brow, lifts up the sick man, straightens out the mattress and the sheets, fluffs up David’s pillow, and gives him something to drink.  David sinks back gratefully and closes his eyes.  “Thank you, Lord.  The hands were those of my servant, but the heart was the heart of God.  O God, thank you for making my bed.”


God would heal him of his sickness and raise him up from the sick bed.  “Make all his bed” simply means “heal him and raise him up.” This would be the gracious and merciful act of the Lord, undeserved by David but lovingly granted by Jehovah.  “If I regard wickedness in my heart, the lord will not hear” (66:18, NASB), so it’s important that we confess our sins to the Lord.  If we haven’t been merciful to others how can our hearts be right to ask Him for mercy?


DAVID’S FOES (41:4-9)

It is difficult for us today, brought up as we are on the hero legends of David, to imagine how many and varied were his enemies.  We think of David as the giant slayer, as a charismatic figure able to transform the outcasts of society into a disciplined force of fighting men.  We think of the man who inspired such loyalty that men would risk everything just to bring him a cup of water.  But any man in a high office, no matter how wisely he rules, will have his foes and David was no exception. After his sin, which caused a scandal in Israel, his enemies were given great influence and power to use against him.


In this section (41:4-9) the psalmist, instead of reciting his troubles in the manner characteristic of the thanksgiving of an individual, gives us the words of the lament which he addressed to the Lord when he was experiencing distress and affliction. In this way he conveys to his hearers a more lively and realistic impression of the situation in which he found himself and at the same time their sense of the measure of God’s providence is quickened.  And this is not a psalm written in the midst of trouble, but a portion of autobiography written in a time of calmness.


He is healed, for which he is profoundly thankful, but more than his recovery, he stresses his vindication against the assaults of his enemies.  His integrity has been confirmed.  He can for all the days to come stand in the temple before his people as one of whom the Lord is mindful.


This section tells us two things about David’s foes:

                            I.        They Professed Concern for David (41:4-6)

                           II.        They Promoted Conspiracy Against David (41:7-9)



4 I said, Lord, be merciful unto me: heal my soul; for I have sinned against thee.


David knew that his troubles stemmed from his sin.  Sin is the sickness of the soul; pardoning mercy heals it, renewing grace heals it, and we should be seeking for this spiritual healing more earnestly than for bodily health. 


What a sweet and succulent morsel sin looks like when we are contemplating it!  But it burns and ulcerates and kills.  “My sin,” groaned David, “my sin, my sin, my sin.” All through his penitential[3] psalms it is the same; he is horrified by the memory of his sin.  It was all over and done with, all in the past, it had been confessed and cleansed.  But still he woke at night, groaning in an agony of shame.  If only he could relive that chapter of his life!  And who of us does not have some such dark memory?  It sometimes happens to me in the midst of my prayer that the image of some past sin pops into my mind; it embarrasses me to show that image to God, and it hurts my confidence, and may even cause me to question my faith.  I know my sins are forgiven and even forgotten by the Lord, but I just can’t get them out of my mind.  I must confess, however, that as I continue to grow in faith and knowledge of Him, it happens less and less.


The psalmist did not depend solely on his own past consideration of the sick and infirm.  He wisely took his illness to the Lord in prayer, confessing his sins and pleading for healing as something he didn’t deserve.  Not all sickness is a direct result of sin in a believer’s life.  Many of the ailments of older people, for example, are part of the normal process of degeneration due to age.  Sometimes, however, there is a direct link between sin and sickness, and where the faintest possibility of this exists, the believer should rush into the Lord’s presence in heartfelt confession.  In all such cases, the Great Physician’s forgiveness should precede the local doctor’s remedies.


It is beneficial to take note of what this man said: (a) he asked simply for mercy and healing; (b) he admitted his own unworthiness; and (c) he put plainly the heart of his trouble, in the malice with which he was surrounded.  Our prayers are no less reverent for being frank. 



5 Mine enemies speak evil of me, When shall he die, and his name perish?


His enemies were not the Philistines, the Moabites, or the children of Ammon but his own subjects, those over whom he had been given the rule by God.  What a mess he had made of things!


His enemies hoped his sickness would prove to be fatal and result in a speedy death.  They hoped his “name” (the memory of him) would “perish.”  They begrudged him his fame and wanted his very name to be forgotten.  Such was the hatred generated against David by those who wished him ill.  Evidently he was surrounded with hate.  To be sick in an atmosphere of hatred must make one truly miserable; and unfortunately it has been a very common experience in modern days.  Wars and terrorism has filled the whole world with people who know this experience. 



6 And if he come to see me, he speaketh vanity: his heart gathereth iniquity to itself; when he goeth abroad, he telleth it.


“And if he come to see me.” We are not told who the “he” is, but probably it was Absalom. Imagine, if you will, the king gravely ill and resting upon his bed, and Absalom arriving at the palace for a visit with his father.  There’s a cheerful hail emanating from the corridor outside the king’s bedroom. It is followed by a burst of laughter from the men on guard.  Then a sharp stamping of feet as they come to attention and a thud as they ground their arms.  David has recognized the voice of his favorite son, his handsome, captivating Absalom—Absalom, with all of David’s wit, charm, and charisma but with none of David’s honesty and spiritual life.


In he comes, cheerful and robust, looking superb in his uniform, his arms outstretched toward his dad, his eyes expressing sympathy and affection, conveying the right mixture of respect, concern, and kindly good fellowship.  He strides over to the bed and bows to the king.  “Well, dad!  And how are you today?  Feeling better?  Does the doctors say when you can get up?” All the while his eyes are taking in the increased pallor on David’s face, the feebleness of David’s voice as he bravely replies; “I’m on the mend, son.  I’ll be back on the throne in a week.” A bold bluff which is denied by the sound of choking which racks him until the tears start to flow from his eyes.  “I’m sure you will, dad.  In the meantime, don’t worry about a thing.  Old Joab and I are keeping things together.  Then there’s Ahithofel, president of the cabinet, he’s giving us his usual good advice.  Everything’s under control.”


David knows he’s a liar and a knave (a dishonest man).  Only that morning Joab, perhaps, has warned that Absalom is up to no good; “My lord king!  Be it far from me to add to your troubles but I think we should put Absalom under house arrest.  Pardon me, my lord, but he’s a dangerous man.  We have evidence that he is heading the conspiracy aimed at your life and throne.  “David knows it’s true but, for his very life he won’t believe it and won’t have it.  “Enough, Joab! Not another word!  I’ll hear nothing against Absalom.  Nothing!”


Absalom had his sights set on becoming king of Israel, but if he became king, that would be the end of the Davidic dynasty, for Absalom had no son (2 Samuel 18:18).  God promised David that his descendants would set on the throne of Israel forever (2 Samuel 7:11-16); the promise was ultimately fulfilled in Jesus Christ (Luke 1:31-33[4]).  David was gifted at reading people (2 Samuel 14:17-20) and knew the truth.


So David contemplates not only the horror of his sin and the hatred of his subjects but also the hypocrisy of his son: “And if he come to see me, he speaketh vanity [the word is falsehood]: his heart gathereth iniquity to itself; when he goeth abroad, he telleth it.” In his mind’s eye he sees Absalom, for all his sham assurances leaving the sick room to meet with his friends; “The old man is worse.  He could hardly speak.  He’ll be dead in a week.  It may not be necessary to turn our shock troops loose in riot.  We’ll wait a week” (“He goeth abroad, he telleth it”).


They Promoted Conspiracy Against David (41:7-9)


David was a realist after all, and as much as he hated to think that Absalom was nothing but a black-hearted traitor and as much as he might forbid Joab to discuss it that was the heart of the father speaking.  David was every inch a king, even when down to death’s door.  He knew the strength of this conspiracy—perhaps not in terms that Joab would understand—men marshaled on Absalom’s payrolls; secret meetings attended by Joab’s spies; hidden war equipment stockpiled in secrete dens around the country—but in spiritual terms, in his own guilty past and his present incapacity.  Jesus quoted verse 9 in the upper room when referring to Judas (John 13:38), so the psalm has Messianic overtones.



7 All that hate me whisper together against me: against me do they devise my hurt.


There was that which we would call today a “whisper” campaign against the king.  But a deliberate attempt to incriminate a person like David would get nowhere if there was nothing in his life upon which to build the fire.  David knew that the lies of his foes were all the more poisonous because of the truth mixed in with them.


“Devise my hurt” means “imagine the worst.”



8 An evil disease, say they, cleaveth fast unto him: and now that he lieth he shall rise up no more.


David was sick but it wasn’t what they said it was.  They called it “an evil disease,” meaning “a thing of Belial” or “an affliction from the abandoned one.” Some foul and filthy malady supposedly from Satan was rumored to be rotting away the king’s flesh.  David however, recognized his afflictions as coming from God and he knew God could make him better again.  But in the meantime he was helpless, weak, and so ill that his foes were saying, “He’ll soon be dead!” His infirmities drew no pity, but only impatience that he lingered so long.  Their comforting words were full of deceit; they rejoiced in every symptom of his approaching death.


His enemies sound like a court conspiracy.  They (a) whisper among themselves; (b) proceed to imagine, hopefully from their point of view, the worst that can happen; and (c) put their imaginings into plain words which started rumors in the community.  It all looks like a mean effort to prepare the ground for some kind of plot to seize power. 



9 Yea, mine own familiar friend, in whom I trusted, which did eat of my bread, hath lifted up his heel against me.


So David mentions the strength of the conspiracy.  He also mentions the sting of this conspiracy.  It was bad enough that his friends had abuse him, but there was something worse than that.  “Yea, mine own familiar friend, in whom I trusted, who did eat of my bread, hath lifted up his heel against me.” That friend was Ahithophel, one of David’s best friends and certainly his most able and persuasive counselor.  “He broke bread with me!” gasped David as though unable to believe the news of Ahithophel’s defection.  Of all the sorrows of life, this is certainly one of the bitterest—to be betrayed by one who has had close association with you.


In the East, to eat of a man’s bread carried with it the idea of sacred associations; a covenant bond was formed which implied responsibility to protect and be loyal.  One never attacked a man with whom he broke bread in good fellowship.


But Ahithophel had gone over to Absalom, and had done so with the added venom of giving David, as it were, a vicious kick.  Of course, David knew why Ahithophel had gone over to Absalom—he hoped to be avenged on David for Bathsheba and Uriah the Hittite.  For Bathsheba was Ahithophel’s granddaughter and despite his pretended friendship with David he never forgave him for the seduction of his granddaughter and the murder of her husband.  Things did not end well for Ahithophel, for in the end he committed suicide by hanging himself (2 Samuel 17:23). 


Let us never forget or think it’s strange, if we receive evil from those whom we consider to be our friends.  Haven’t we ourselves broken our word to God?  Wasn’t Jesus betrayed by one whom he called “friend?”


Ahithophel foreshadows the betrayer of Christ, Judas Iscariot.  Jesus quoted this verse in reference to Judas, “I speak not of you all; I know whom I have chosen; but that the scripture may be fulfilled, He that eateth bread with me hath lifted up his heel against me” (John 13:18).  This verse was fulfilled in Judas, the one who betrayed the Lord Jesus.  It is significant, however, that Jesus omitted the words “my own familiar friend in whom I trusted.” Knowing in advance that Judas would betray him, the Lord said, he who “did eat of my bread, hath lifted up his heel against me.” Peter also referred to it in Acts 1:16, “Men and brethren, this scripture must needs have been fulfilled, which the Holy Ghost by the mouth of David spake before concerning Judas, which was guide to them that took Jesus.”


The phrase “lifted up his heel (or “kicked violently against me”) pictures a deceptive and underhanded attack (see Joshua 10:4 and Romans 16:20).  To our minds the last touch of meanness is to kick a man when he is down.



III DAVID’S FAITH (41:10-12)


Thinking along the lines which marks the early part of this psalm would drive a man out of his mind.  The endless round of remembered sin, accusing conscience, bitter remorse, and inevitable consequence would lead to depression, insanity, and suicide, so David turned his thoughts elsewhere, and being David, he did not turn them to vain abuse of his lot in life.  He turned his thoughts to God.



10 But thou, O Lord, be merciful unto me, and raise me up, that I may requite them.


“Lord, you know I am a very sick man and the doctors cannot cure me and people are only talking about my death, but you are a merciful God.  ‘Lord, raise me up,’ make me well.  Give me another chance to put the affairs of my kingdom in order.” He cast himself upon the mercy of God, because he knew he had sinned (41:4). When we find ourselves trapped like David, and do the same, the sun will shine through.


The psalmist has sought to move God to be gracious to him by pleading (a) his sickness; (b) his confession of sin (32:5); and mainly (c) the inordinate treachery of friends, who looked forward to his death with malicious delight.  To these three reasons for God’s intervention he adds in bitter indignation the fourth; “that I may requite[5] them,” or “that I may pay them back,” which is not the petition a godly man should make, for vengeance belongs to God.  But in his dire distress the psalmist pours out his passionate appeal for vindication.  And, driven by his outraged consciousness of innocence, he even prays for the opportunity to wreak vengeance upon his false accusers.  At first this seems unworthy of a man of David’s stature, but we must remember that he was the Lord’s anointed ruler of Israel, and it was his duty as king to deal with sedition and betrayal.  While as an individual he might have chosen to tolerate villainy and treachery against himself, as the king he was obliged to suppress any attempts to overthrow the government.


David is not asking God to punish those who took advantage of him.  He asks for strength to do it himself!  It is only through such a victory that he can feel sure of God’s favor.  We must admit that David’s prayer is not a Christian prayer, and that there is a great gulf fixed between it and Christ’s “Father, forgive them; for they know not what they do.” The reader should mark this contrast as a striking instance of the difference that Christ makes, and of the height of His ethical demands.



11 By this I know that thou favourest me, because mine enemy doth not triumph over me.


So far, all his enemies had done was plot and conspire, spy upon him, and gloat over his illness.  David recognized in this not their uncertainty, unpreparedness, and hesitation to strike, but the Lord’s mighty, restraining hand, able and willing to protect David who could not protect himself.


That is something else for us to think about—God controls all situations and nothing happens without His permission.  He has lessons to teach us in adverse circumstances and will not permit the ungodly to take advantage of our weakness when we are in His hand.


This is not a perfect prayer, for vengeance belongs to God.  Yet it comes from an outraged soul who feels that he is being dealt with in deliberate injustice, so we can understand his bitter mood, even though we may not approve of it.


The prayer of the psalmist was answered, and therefore God’s delight in His servant was made known to the embarrassment of his false friends.  “Mine enemy doth not triumph over me”: Because of the uprightness of his life, the Lord has vindicated him.  And now he can stand again in the temple to give thanks before the Lord in the sight of the congregation not only for this occasion but forever.


David declares, “I know that thou favourest me,” i.e., “tenderly love me” (Genesis 34:19), which is manifested by relief from his enemies; and, furthermore, God recognizes his innocence by sustaining him during times of trouble. There seems to be some who think this sounds like David is boasting excessively.  But he actually was a man of integrity in spite of his sins and failures.  And compared to his foes he was a paragons of virtue.



12 And as for me, thou upholdest me in mine integrity, and settest me before thy face for ever.


In some ways that is the most remarkable utterance in the book of Psalm’s.


The background of the psalm is David’s unbelievable sin.  Yet David could plead his “integrity” before God!  We say; the man must have been mad, he must have had mental as well as physical problems.  How could he speak about “integrity?”


We must remember that, after his great sin when Nathan the prophet came in and convicted him, David fell on his face before God and confessed his sin.  Then Nathan said: “God hath put away thy sin.” David believed it, and it was counted unto him for righteousness.  So David says; “I have a wonderful God.  He not only forgives my sin, he forgets my sin.  He not only cancels it, he gives to me His own righteousness.  I am not only a forgiven man, I am a justified man” so in this psalm he boldly takes his stand in the righteousness of Christ.  He had made it so really and truly his own he could actually speak of “mine integrity[6].” That is the kind of wonderful God we have!  He is a God who not only forgives our sins, he blots them out of existence.


There is another reason for David asserting his “integrity,” for he had walked before the Lord in humility and submission (7:8; 18:19-25; 25:21; 78:72).  When confronted with his sins he confess them and sought the face of the Lord (2 Samuel 12:13).  David wanted mercy for himself but not for his enemies, except for his son Absalom (2 Samuel 18:5).  Why?  Because his enemies (especially Absalom) had committed treason against the Lord’s chosen and anointed King.  This was not a personal vendetta on David’s part, but a concern for the future of the nation of Israel and the dynasty of David.



13 Blessed be the Lord God of Israel from everlasting, and to everlasting. Amen, and Amen.


Confident and serene, the psalmist now raises his voice in a parting burst of praise.  Jehovah, the covenant-keeping God of Israel, is worthy to be worshipped “from everlasting to everlasting.”


There are some Bible scholars who believe this verse was probably added later by an editor to mark the end of book one of the Psalm’s.  Each of the first four books ends with a similar Doxology (72:18-20; 89:52; 106:48), and Book five ends with a praise psalm (150).  But this verse reminds us that the main thing in our lives must be the eternal praise and glory of the Lord.


God answers prayer, not to make His people more comfortable, but to bring glory to His name.  The Lord still had more work for David to do, particularly the preparation for the building of the temple, and His Glory would one day move into that holy sanctuary (1 Kings 8:1-11).


This verse ends with a double amen.  “Amen, and Amen” means that God put the finishing touches on our salvation when Christ rose from the dead, ascended into heaven, and sat down at the right hand of the throne of God.  Christ finished the work of salvation for us.  You don’t have to add anything to it, but don’t take away from the gospel by omitting the Resurrection.  Without that there is no gospel.




[1] Blessed—“happy.”

[2] (Matthew 5:7, GNT) “Happy are those who are merciful to others; God will be merciful to them!

[3] Penitential psalms refers to any of the Psalms that give expression to feelings of penitence.

[4] (Luke 1:31-33, GNT) “You will become pregnant and give birth to a son, and you will name him Jesus. He will be great and will be called the Son of the Most High God. The Lord God will make him a king, as his ancestor David was, and he will be the king of the descendants of Jacob forever; his kingdom will never end!”

[5] Requite—to make retaliation for (a wrong, injury, etc.); avenge.

[6] Integrity-lit. blamelessness (15:2; 18:3).